How to Drive Sales with Your Instagram Marketing Strategy

It’s crucial for businesses to have an active social media presence to survive in 2018.

No social media marketing strategy is complete without Instagram. It’s become a top platform for brands, advertisers, and consumers alike.

This platform has 800 million monthly active users. And 500 million Instagram profiles are active on a daily basis.

Here’s something else that may surprise you: 70% of Instagram hashtags are branded.

What does that tell you? If you’re not active on Instagram, your competitors definitely are.

Those of you who already have an account set up are on the right track. But just having an Instagram profile doesn’t necessarily translate to sales.

If you want to drive sales and make real money from Instagram, you need to come up with a viable strategy. This guide will steer you in the right direction.

Increase your following

One of the first steps to having a successful Instagram marketing strategy is growing your follower base.

Without lots of followers, you will struggle to get your posts seen. It’s not going to be easy for you to generate sales without followers.

For those of you who just created your Instagram page, it can be intimidating to start with the number zero. But unless you’re a brand new company, you already have customers.

That’s the best place to start looking for followers. Here are the top reasons why users follow brands on social media:

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As you can see from these numbers, more than 73% of users say they follow brands on social media because they are interested in the product or service the brands are offering.

Your existing customers are interested in your brand. Tell them about your profile, and ask them to follow you.

Start by sending out messages to your email subscribers. Just make sure you give them an incentive to follow you.

For example, you may send out emails only a few times per month. Tell your subscribers that if they want to see more frequent discounts and promotions, they will find them on Instagram.

If you use this strategy, be sure to follow through with that promise.

In addition to reaching out to your email subscribers, you can have an Instagram badge on your website. Use your other social media channels to promote your Instagram profile as well.

After you take these steps, another great way to get more followers is by following other people. That said, don’t follow random users.

Find followers that fit within your target audience. That’ll be your best bet when it comes to generating new leads and driving sales.

How do you find people that fit within your target market? It’s a bit tricky, and you’ll need to put in some effort. First, you need to find accounts similar to yours.

I’m not saying you need to steal followers from your competitors, although that can work too.

Instead, you can search for Instagram profiles that post content related to your industry. For example, let’s say your company sells hiking and camping equipment.

Check out this profile. The name of the account is Adventure Enthusiasts:

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They have more than 132,000 followers. All of their content is related to outdoor locations across the world.

You could assume that people who follow this account would be interested in camping and hiking.

It’s time-consuming, but this will work. Once you find an account like this, go through its followers, and start following people.

The users will get a notification and check out your page. If they like what they see on your profile, which we’ll discuss shortly, they’ll be likely to follow you back.

Once you add tons of new followers, it’s going to be much easier for you to drive sales with your Instagram strategy.

Focus on the first impression of your page

First impressions matter. This statement holds true in the real world as well as the virtual world.

As a marketer, you need to recognize that. It’s the same reason why writing an irresistible blog post introduction is vital to your content strategy.

When an Instagram user clicks on your profile, what’s the first thing they see?

They see your profile picture, biography, and your most recent posts. Going back to our last point about following users to grow your own follower base, when a user clicks your profile, they shouldn’t have any questions.

What I mean by that is this. Your profile should say who you are and what you do.

Having your logo as your profile picture makes the most sense. It’s much more recognizable than a random picture of a person or one of your products.

Here’s an example from the Dollar Shave Club Instagram page:

image7 3

What is your first impression of this profile?

To me, it’s clear from the beginning who they are. The profile picture is their logo, and their bio explains what they do in greater detail.

They even include a link to a landing page on their website to encourage users to sign up for the service.

Basically, if your brand’s Instagram page doesn’t grab the attention of users, you won’t have much luck getting followers.

For the most part, it’s best to keep everything short, to the point, and professional. Now, you’ll have a greater opportunity to promote your products and ultimately increase your sales.

Post content on a regular basis

If you’re adding a picture or video to your profile only once a month, it’s not an effective strategy. I wouldn’t even call that an active profile.

You want your brand to always be fresh in the minds of your followers.

At the same time, you don’t want to flood user timelines and be perceived as annoying. You need to find a middle ground here.

I wouldn’t recommend posting much more than once per day. If you have lots of content you want to share each day, it’s better to add it to your Instagram story.

If you don’t know how it works, check out my ultimate guide to using Instagram story to promote your business.

How often should you post on Instagram? Research shows that the top brands on Instagram post 1.5 times each day on average. That comes out to about 10 or 11 posts per week.

The timing of these posts is crucial as well. Top brands typically post content during office hours of a standard workweek.

image1 4


Well, roughly 90% of employees admit to using social media as a distraction while they’re at work.

You need to recognize this and plan the timing of your posts accordingly. Posting on a regular basis increases your exposure and the likelihood that as many people as possible will see your content.

Don’t be too “salsey “

So, we’ve just established you need to post daily. But we haven’t talked about the content of those posts.

Obviously, you want to drive sales. However, that doesn’t mean that everything you post should be a product promotion.

That’ll annoy your followers and end up having the opposite effect of what you’re looking for. Mix up your content.

Be funny. Post pictures of your employees. Just don’t stray too far from your brand image.

While it’s okay to post content that’s not promoting a product, you want to stay away from controversial topics. I’m referring to subjects such as religion, politics, and race. Offending your followers is not going to help you drive sales.

Again, just avoid too many promotional posts. Posting too many promotions is the number one annoying action businesses take on social media, according to users:

image2 4

Furthermore, 46% of users say they’ll unfollow a brand on social media if it posts promotions too frequently.

Whenever you do post a promotion, do it casually. You don’t need to put words in all capitalized letters and include tons of stars and quotation marks around everything.

That’s annoying. Keep it short and to the point.

Go live

Instagram has a live broadcast feature. If you read my top marketing trends of 2018, you’d know I put live video streaming first on this list.

Users love it, and brands are using this information to their advantage.

Live video gives you the opportunity to connect with your audience in real time. While you broadcast, they can comment.

Make sure you respond to these comments, and try your best to acknowledge those users. This will help you increase engagement metrics.

There are endless possibilities with your live streams.

You could demonstrate new products, give a tour of your facility, or even introduce some of your employees. I like the idea of hosting a Q&A segment to give you a more authentic connection with your audience.

Another way to utilize Instagram live story is by working with other brands. Instagram is the top social platform in terms of brand collaborations across the globe:

image4 4

You could try to get featured on the live broadcast of another profile in an effort to promote your brand.

As a result, this type of strategy can help you expose your brand to a new audience, increase your followers, and ultimately drive more sales.

Add pictures and videos to your story

As I briefly mentioned earlier, your story is a great place to add daily content.

You can post content to your story multiple times per day because it won’t flood the timelines of users who follow you.

But that doesn’t mean you should go overboard and post 20 different pictures and videos to your story every day.

People won’t look at each one, so it’s a waste of your time and resources. The engagement and views will drop with each additional post to your story.

You also need to make sure the timing of the post on your story is relevant because it will disappear 24 hours after it gets uploaded.

I’d recommend using your story to offer discounts, run contests, or tell people what you’re up to that day in the office.

The whole idea here is having your brand on their minds. If they’re thinking about your brand, they are more likely to make a purchase.

Similarly to your live video strategy, you can even use your Instagram story to partner with another brand for a takeover. You can take over their account, and they can post content to yours as well.

Again, this will make it easier for you to expose your brand to a wider audience.

Partner with social influencers

You don’t need to be the only one promoting your brand on Instagram.

You should work with social influencers to share your content and encourage sales as well. That’s because social influencers have high engagement rates and great relationships with their followers.

If you work with micro influencers, their followers will likely view those people as their peers. Based on this research, 90% of consumers say they trust recommendations made by their peers:

image5 4

Plus, working with micro-influencers is much more cost-effective than paying someone with a celebrity status to promote your brand.

Not sure where you can find social influencers?

Check out these top platforms for managing social influencers to get started.

Add hashtags to your captions

Captions are just as important, if not more important, than the images and videos you post.

You’ve got to learn how to write Instagram captions that drive engagement.

Hashtags are definitely necessary. There are lots of different approaches to this.

For starters, you can use one that already exists so that other people can see it. For example, you could pick a hashtag that’s promoting a national event.

Another idea is to create your own hashtag. This would be much more brand-specific.

You could use a hashtag with just your brand name as well as the name of your campaign.

If you’re like to run contests on Instagram, you can have a unique hashtag for each one.

Encourage UGC

UGC is short for user-generated content. This piggybacks on my last point about using hashtags to promote contests.

Promotions of this nature encourage users to post photos and videos related to your brand to their personal profiles.

As a result, your brand gets exposed to all of the followers who are friends with that particular user. This type of content acts as a recommendation, which we just discussed as an effective promotional method.

Besides running contests, the best way to encourage user-generated content is to feature user photos on your profile.

Check out this post from the Thule Instagram page:

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As you can see, this post came from one of their followers.

When other people see this, they’ll be encouraged to share it as well as submit their own photos for the chance to be featured on the page.

Try some sponsored posts

The great thing about promoting your brand on Instagram is that it’s completely free.

It’s not going to cost you anything to create a profile and post content. Lots of the strategies we’ve discussed so far in this guide won’t cost you anything either.

But if that’s just not cutting it for you and you want to be more direct with your strategy, you may want to consider paying for ads.

This is a good idea for newer brands struggling to get new followers.

You’ve got lots of options here:

  • photos
  • videos
  • carousel
  • stories

If you want to find more information about setting these up, check out this resource from the Instagram Business website.

The great thing about these ads is you can include links that drive sales. Here’s an example of a photo ad with a “shop now” CTA:

image3 4

It’s also easy to set up these ads while making sure you reach your target audience and stay within your marketing budget.


Your brand needs to have an active Instagram presence.

Always try to increase your followers. Make sure your profile is set up in a way that gives a great first impression.

Post content on a daily basis, but don’t post too much promotional content. Use live video streaming and your Instagram story to your advantage as well.

Partner with social influencers to expose your brand to a new audience.

Use captions with hashtags as a promotional tool. Encourage user-generated content.

If you want to take your Instagram marketing strategy to the next level and you’ve got some extra funds, you may want to consider paying for sponsored posts.

All of these strategies will help you elevate your Instagram presence and increase sales as a result.

What type of content is your brand posting on Instagram to generate sales from your followers?

Quick Sprout

If Content Is a Performance, Is It Ever Authentic?

Producing more effective content that helps you build an audience of interested prospects is a common theme in my articles. In the past few months, I’ve written about ways to show how likable you are and how to make your writing personal, but not self-indulgent. And I realized that neither of those posts mentioned authenticity,
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AI, Chatbots and Designing the Next Generation of Automated Customer Engagement

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No matter how much sweetness or spin you add to it, early incarnations of AI-powered chatbots are the call centers of this generation. They’re cool. They’re scalable. They’re relatively inexpensive compared to human agents.

Yes, chatbots scale engagement through new, popular messaging channels and introduce conversational commerce capabilities that carry the potential to deliver incredible experiences. But here’s the thing…most of the interactions are basic, seeking to replicate existing transactions and experiences that only seem to wow those designing not experiencing them.

On the other side of code and algorithms however, are discerning, sophisticated, self-interested human beings. Transactions and capacity aside, engagement and experiences need to be designed to ever-shifting and heightened human standards and expectations. They don’t care that you have the ability to automate engagement. They care about engagement, experiences and outcomes. They care about themselves.

To design incredible experiences, conversational commerce engineers need to embrace human-centered design. Doing so combines the ability of messaging platforms, machine learning, AI as well as empathy, emotion and user experience (UX) interface design (UI).

IQ (Intelligence Quotient) + EQ (Emotional Quotient) + HQ (Human Quotient) = AI-Powered Experiences That Matter to People

I said as much at the 2016 DES (Digital Enterprise Show) in Madrid.

Before my plenary, I was asked to share my thoughts on next-gen conversational commerce design. I wrote about it for Forbes. But I also wanted to share my slides with you here.  Between the two, I hoping we can spark some great conversations and creativity to upgrade the future of artificial intelligence and human engagement.

Imagine the possibilities for customer service, support, e-commerce, search, CRM, loyalty programs, proactive engagement and all forms of CX 2.0! And, it’s not just about customers…it’s also about EX and employee engagement and experiences!

Brian Solis

Brian Solis is principal analyst and futurist at Altimeter, the digital analyst group at Prophet, Brian is world renowned keynote speaker and 7x best-selling author. His latest book, X: Where Business Meets Designexplores the future of brand and customer engagement through experience design. Invite him to speak at your event or bring him in to inspire and change executive mindsets.

Connect with Brian!

Twitter: @briansolis
Facebook: TheBrianSolis
LinkedIn: BrianSolis
Instagram: BrianSolis
Youtube: BrianSolisTV
Snapchat: BrianSolis

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Brian Solis

Join Us for a Free, In-Depth Workshop to Improve Your Sales Skills

At Copyblogger, we love to teach! We really have a great time teaching copywriting, content strategy, search engine optimization, social media strategy … The one thing we don’t teach? Selling. Because it’s not what we’re fantastic at. Fortunately, we found someone who is fantastic at it, without being … a creepy weirdo. (There, I said
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Weekend Favs June 23

Weekend Favs June 23 written by John Jantsch read more at Duct Tape Marketing

My weekend blog post routine includes posting links to a handful of tools or great content I ran across during the week.

I don’t go into depth about the finds, but encourage you to check them out if they sound interesting. The photo in the post is a favorite for the week from an online source or one that I took out there on the road.

  • Cinamaker – Portable multi-camera live stream studio. Shoot, record, and edit in real-time with smartphones, digital cameras, and your tablet.
  • Really Good Chatbots – Helping others building chatbots find inspiration.
  • Brizy – The effortless way to build WordPress websites visually.

These are my weekend favs, I would love to hear about some of yours – Tweet me @ducttape

Duct Tape Marketing

Silicon Valley Uncovered: The evolution of tech, media and its impact on society

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In 2010, my dear friend Hermione Way invited me as the first-ever guest on her then new show, “Silicon Valley Uncovered” for TheNextWeb. It aired on January 18th, 2011. I share this with you because the conversation, while several years old now, is strangely better suited for today and the modern times in which we live and work.

I’m not even sure how I stumbled across this interview. To be honest, I’m taken aback by how prescient and philosophical this conversation was in explaining what’s happening now. I found myself reacting in disbelief, “Wow. Did I really say that!?”

At the time of this interview, I was in the 11th year (of 12) running a digital lab I had founded in 1999. Shortly thereafter, I would join Altimeter in 2012, which was then acquired by Prophet in 2015.

It’s not a short interview. But if you can spare 30 minutes whether via audio or video, I promise, it explains so much of what’s happening today.

To help, I break down each episode below.

Please watch and share and let me know what you think!

Part One

The evolution of media

Impact of media on our lives

Personal brand

The power of perception and mindsets

The definition of “new media”

The evolution of business: from social business to an adaptive business

The power of online relationships: the social graph vs. the interest graph

Part Two

Adding “People” to the 4Ps of Marketing

Social media and the democratization of influence

How shared experiences change relationship dynamics and influence impressions and expressions

The attention economy and the importance of relevance, context, engagement and reciprocity

Brands becoming people and people becoming brands

The human network and the new model for information distribution and influence

How social media will affect politics, social movements and global culture (WOW!)

Intention counts for everything

Part Three

The renaissance of tech and the importance of Silicon Valley

The allure of Silicon Valley for entrepreneurs and innovators

The importance of the HP garage, the birthplace of Silicon Valley (thank you Robert Scoble!)

The culture of Silicon Valley

Social media douchebags

Brian Solis

Brian Solis is principal analyst and futurist at Altimeter, the digital analyst group at Prophet, Brian is world renowned keynote speaker and 7x best-selling author. His latest book, X: Where Business Meets Designexplores the future of brand and customer engagement through experience design. Invite him to speak at your event or bring him in to inspire and change executive mindsets.

Connect with Brian!

Twitter: @briansolis
Facebook: TheBrianSolis
LinkedIn: BrianSolis
Instagram: BrianSolis
Youtube: BrianSolisTV
Snapchat: BrianSolis

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Brian Solis

Presentation: Turn specs into high quality apps

A while ago, I shared the Dutch version of my presentation called “Turn specs into high quality apps”. Last November, I was invited to do this presentation over at the DevDayBE-conference in English. Today, I want to share the recording of that presentation. I’ve written already several articles here about ATDD/BDD with Specflow and Xamarin.

During the presentation we’ll discuss the Three Amigo’s, how specifications are written using Gherkin and being automated with Specflow and Xamarin.UITest. We even managed to introduce a new buzzword: Acceptance Driven Presentation (ADP).

The sample code can be found on Github. Enjoy!


I hope you liked the presentation and managed to get inspired. Look around on this blog to learn more about testing or Xamarin. Tell me what you think through Twitter or leave a comment below!

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The Importance of Experience Design and the Future of Brand

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Customers today are accidental narcissists.

Tomorrow is an entirely new game brands, CX strategists and marketers.

Disruption is a gift either given to you or by you.

Knowing this, we are still making mistakes in creating meanignful experiences to a new generation of connected, impatient and demanding customers. We get stuck in legacy thinking, playbooks and metrics rather than innovate and disrupt to fully capitalize on new digital opportunities.

Following my presentation at Adobe Summit, I had the opportunity to join my dear friend Giselle Abramovich of for an extensive conversation about the importance of experience design and the future of brand in a digital economy.

Giselle has a way of bringing out the best in someone. In our discussion, I share my latest research, work and ideas about how every company should re-imagine brand for an era of digital Darwinism.

The questions and answers cover a broad range and will get your mind running and hopefully inspire you to blaze new trails for others to follow.

Questions covered in the video:

  1. How does digital transformation and experiential marketing intersect?
  2. What does it take to be an experience-driven business?
  3. What is the role of data in crafting these experiences for consumers?
  4. Every brand claims they are experience-led. How do you get everyone on board?
  5. Which consumer trends should marketers pay close attention to?
  6. How should brands think about experience?
  7. What else are marketers prioritizing?
  8. How did you become a digital anthropologist?

Related Links:

The State of Digital Transformation

The Six Stages of Digital Transformation

The O.P.P.O.S.I.T.E. Approach to Digital CX

The Digital Change Agent’s Manifesto

Brian Solis

Brian Solis is principal analyst and futurist at Altimeter, the digital analyst group at Prophet, Brian is world renowned keynote speaker and 7x best-selling author. His latest book, X: Where Business Meets Design, explores the future of brand and customer engagement through experience design. Invite him to speak at your event or bring him in to inspire and change executive mindsets.

Connect with Brian!

Twitter: @briansolis
Facebook: TheBrianSolis
LinkedIn: BrianSolis
Instagram: BrianSolis
Youtube: BrianSolisTV
Snapchat: BrianSolis

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Brian Solis

Ecclesiastical vestments in the V&A collections

The Victoria and Albert Museum holds an exceptional collection of ecclesiastical vestments dating from the early Middle Ages to the late 19th or even 20th centuries. In Interwoven I study those with a Spanish provenance; also I have worked with other researchers, Francisco García García and Jitske Jasperse, on different aspects of these vestments. Because of this collaboration, the next two blog entries are written by them and explore some aspects of ecclesiastical vestments such as the connections between the textiles and Gregorian reform in the late 11th and early 12th centuries and the links between textiles from a Spanish Royal Treasury and the V&A collections.

Fig. 1: Dalmatic, brocaded silk velvet, with embroidered apparels. Italian (velvet) and Spain (embroideries), about 1520 (T.372-1976)

First, let´s talk about the liturgical textiles in the V&A collection. The collection includes all those pieces worn by priests during the celebration of Mass, such as chasubles, dalmatics (fig. 1), copes and other accessories, such as stoles, maniples, and hoods. It also preserves textiles that furnished and decorated the Church, from altar frontals to book covers, hangings, chalice veils, etc. These types of vestments and textiles were known from the early Middle Ages onwards by the Latin words of vestimenta (vestments) and adormenta (textiles to furnish the Church). Sometimes vestments in museum collections have been recut or updated. The Clare Chasuble (673-1864) is a good example of reshaping (fig. 2). This vestment has been drastically cut down from its original voluminous shape to suit changing fashions in church ritual.

Fig. 2: The Clare Chasuble (back), English embroidery or Opus Anglicanum, 1272-1294. The chasuble was cut down from a bigger garment and re-shaped at a later date

On other occasions, the embroidered decoration on vestments (orphreys and apparels) has been replaced or removed from them (fig. 3). Finally, these pieces were sometimes modified when they came on the art market. All these different circumstances surrounding alterations to the textiles speak of heavy use, as well as of the importance and value these vestments and textiles hold in the History of Art and history of textiles.

Fig. 3: Orphrey from a cope embroidered with saints and martyrs, possibly Spain, mid-16th century (V&A 669-1896)

Ecclesiastical vestments were made in sets: a chasuble that the priest wears during Mass may be  complemented by a matching dalmatic. The dalmatic is as an outer vestment worn, especially,  by the deacons, the priest assistants. Finally, a cope is worn by the priest. Smaller vestments include the stole that is worn around the neck on top of the chasuble or dalmatic  and the maniple which is worn over the left arm.  Mitres and gloves are wore by the highest ranking priests, such as popes, archbishops, bishops, and abbots.

During the study of some of the ecclesiastical vestments, Francisco de Asís García García, V&A visiting scholar through the Erasmus + Fellow scheme, and I were able to trace the provenance of some of the vestments or connect them with other pieces from the same set now in other museums. This detective work involved surveying late 19th and early 20th-century publications and photographic archives in Spain (Fig. 4). For instance, the V&A has a remarkable embroidered altar frontal in silk velvet with gilt metal threads (fig. 5) and a dalmatic from the Monastery of Casbas in Huesca (near the Pyrenees in Aragon). This piece was acquired in 1976, though in past publications it was believed to have been lost. The V&A has one of a pair of dalmatics whose counterpart is at the Royal Museums of Brussels (see the previous blog entry).

Fig 4: Photo of an altar frontal from Casbas monastery (Huesca, Spain), around 1920 (CSIC, Instituto de Historia, Archivo Gómez-Moreno, CGD97 F13-14)

Fig. 5: Altar frontal, silk brocaded velvet, with embroidered apparels. Italian (velvet) and Spain (embroideries), c. 1520 (T.371-1976)

The V&A also has imposing examples of textile church furnishings, in term of both the range of typologies and their different uses. For example, the Spanish carpet that was possibly used during Holy Week or funerals (V&A 250-1906 and displayed at the Medieval and Renaissance galleries), or altar frontals from early medieval Catalonia (see next blog entry) and another one possibly from the embroidery workshop of the Covarrubias family (King, 2004, pp. 163-165) at Toledo (V&A T.141-1969).

One of the questions that I would like to explore is the reasons behind the V&A’s interest in these pieces, which are mostly from the Catholic Church. Many of them, especially the embroidered bands or orphreys and apparels, offer a rich decoration typical of the Gothic and Renaissance periods (fig. 2). Some are expressions of the English art known as Opus Anglicanum (fig. 1) and others were woven on historical looms, such as the tablet woven stoles (fig. 6). These pieces offer a unique insight into raw materials (from silk to metal threads), textile and embroidery techniques and rich and varied decoration. As such, these textiles fitted perfectly the aims of this Museum established from its foundation.

Fig. 6: Tablet woven stole or maniple, silk and gilt metal threads, tablet woven. Germany, 1250-1300 (V&A 8588-1863).

Fig. 6: Detail of the tablet woven (V&A 8588-1863), with the gilt metal thread wefts.

Fig. 6: Detail of the tablet woven (V&A 8588-1863), with the characteristic re-twisted of warps threads, in green and blue silk.

This early collecting was strongly connected to the interest in the Middle Ages that flourished in the 19th century. The study of early textiles influenced some textiles designed by A. Pugin ( /) (fig. 9 E.1162-2012 and T.303-1989) and William Morris ( The latter wrote several reports for the V&A on the importance of acquiring early example of textiles from the Medieval period, including ecclesiastical vestments (W. Morris, June 14, 1893, about this acquisition see:

“They are all of high excellence as works of art; the designs being very inventive, and of great beauty and thoroughly adapted to the material in which they are executed”


Browne, C., Davies, G. and Michael, A.C., 2016: English Medieval Embroidery. Opus Anglicanum, 2016, New Haven and London.

Errera, I., 1907: Catalogue d’étoffes anciennes et modernes décrites par madame Isabelle Errera, Brussels.

King, D., 2004: “Medieval and Renaissance Embroidery from Spain” in Collected textile studies. Donald King, edition by A. Muthesius and M. King, London , pp. 157-178.

Macalister, R. A. S., 1986: Ecclesiastical Vestments: Their Development and History, London.

Monnas, L., 2012: Renaissance Velvets, London: V&A Publising.

Spies, N., 2000: Ecclesiastical Pomp & Aristocratic Circumstance: A Thousand Years of Brocaded Tabletwoven Bands, Jarrettsville, 2000.

Acknowledgments: Dr Francisco de Asís García García, V&A Visiting Scholar under the Erasmus + programme.

Dr Jitske Jasperse, Humboldt University (Berlin).